Nosebleeds are extremely common. They are usually benign, self-limiting and spontaneous. Trauma to the nose, especially nose picking, is the most common underlying cause.
If the person is hemodynamically unstable meaning they are showing signs of low blood pressure including
- Pale and cool skin
- Diaphoresis (sweating)
- Very fast or very slow pulse (fast can be either a reaction to or a cause of instability; slow is almost always a cause)
- Shortness of breath (not enough blood getting to the lungs)
- Chest pain (could be related to inadequate blood flow in the heart)
- Confusion (probably comes after the blood pressure drops)
- Loss of consciousness (syncope, which is bad)
call emergency services and get them professional help 999/112/911. these symptoms could be indications of a much more severe problem like a heart attack or stroke guessed by the drop in pressure.
If the person is hemodynamically stable
Sit them down, ensure they are leaning slightly forward and tell them to pinch the soft, fleshy part of their nose firmly for 10-15 minutes.
Their mouth should be open so that they can breathe through their mouth and can spit out any blood from their mouth into a sink, bowl or container in front of them.
Monitor their pulse and their blood pressure.
After 10-15 minutes, they can gently release the pressure to see if the bleeding is controlled. If it is not controlled, tell them to pinch again.
- If bleeding will not stop advise getting professional medical help.